What Causes Coronary Artery Calcification and How Can It Be Treated?

Coronary artery calcification is a build-up of calcium in the two main arteries of the heart, also called coronary arteries. This occurs after plaque (fat and cholesterol) has formed in the arteries (atherosclerosis) for about five years. Calcium is a sign of the amount of accumulated fat (plaque) in the arteries, because this buildup contains calcium. Plaques in the arteries of the heart are the main cause of heart attacks.If a piece of plaque breaks off, a blood clot can form around it, blocking blood flow and oxygen supply to the heart.

This can damage the heart muscle and be life-threatening.

Coronary artery

calcification occurs when calcium is deposited in the inner layer of the coronary arteries. It reflects atherosclerotic disease and incrementally predicts future cardiovascular events (CVD) regardless of traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Computed tomography (CT) provides a different means of detecting and quantifying coronary plaque as well as valve calcification.Given the accuracy of the diagnosis, the prognostic utility, the non-invasive nature, the safety with a relatively small radiation risk and its low cost, cardiac computed tomography has become an exponentially expanding field of research in cardiology and radiology.

Since calcification can not only be detected, but can also be quantified with excellent reproducibility, it has been a vital tool in studies involving new therapies for cardiovascular diseases.In this review, we intend to review some of the promising therapies in sight and the role of cardiac computed tomography and cardiac calcification in these studies. The aortic valve is located between the lower left cavity of the heart and the body's main artery (aorta). Aortic valve calcification is a condition in which calcium deposits form in the aortic valve. These deposits can cause the valve opening to narrow.Severe narrowing can reduce blood flow through the aortic valve, a condition called aortic valve stenosis.

Compared to the apixaban group, patients who received VKA had a higher calcified plaque (β2 %3D18.28; p %3D 0.0), but they also had a significant progression in total plaque volume (ß2 %3D 28.54; p %3D 0.0; p %3D); and calcified plaque (ß2 %3D) 14.10; p %3D 0.00, after adjusting for confounding factors.When your doctor tells you that you have calcified arteries, it's usually after you've had a coronary calcification scan. The goal of treating coronary calcification is to slow (and possibly reverse) its progression and prevent serious consequences, such as a heart attack or stroke.Aortic valve calcification may be an early sign of heart disease, even if there are no other symptoms of heart disease. However, several studies have revealed that VKA is associated with increased calcification in the heart, both in the coronary arteries and in the aortic valve.In the later stages of coronary calcification, the doctor may suggest surgical procedures to combat the disease. Computed tomography provides a different means of detecting and quantifying coronary calcification, as well as valvular calcification, with excellent reproducibility.Medications that treat coronary calcification can have adverse side effects, and sometimes surgical procedures can cause unfortunate complications, such as arrhythmias, aneurysms, bleeding, arterial dissections, strokes, heart attacks, and even death.

You've probably heard of the term “hardening of the arteries” which is the same as calcification. Microcalcification occurs in these intimate areas close to the internal elastic lamina due to macrophage-releasing matrix vesicles or apoptosis.Bone-related proteins and characteristics such as differentiation of chondrocytes and osteoblasts mineralization bone matrix deposition and bone resorption have been observed in areas of arterial calcification.

Coronary artery calcification

is a build-up of calcium in the two main arteries of the heart known as coronary arteries.Understanding the pathophysiology of cardiac calcification will help develop new therapeutic pathways and therefore will help adapt treatment to specific target populations.

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